Production and reaction of free radicals in the environment.
Free radicals are produced in the environment by a variety of processes but particularly by solar irradiation of natural waters. Projects in this area include:
- Factors influencing the solar production in natural waters of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as the superoxide ion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) and the mechanism(s) for their decay .
- The use of free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and solvated electron (eaq-) to degrade organic pollutants in the environment (with Prof. W. Cooper, University of California, Irvine, USA).
Chemical structure of natural organic matter in aquatic systems
The chemical structures of the many components making up natural organic matter (NOM) are still largely unknown. This project will involve the isolation of NOM from water samples collected from a range of aquatic sites in Southern NZ and then a study of their structures using IR Spectroscopy (with Prof J McQuillan), ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (with Prof. W. Cooper, Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA), and molecular orbital calculations.
Occurrence and treatment of pharmaceutical compounds in waste water
This project would involve the determination of the typical levels of these compounds in New Zealand waters and a study of advanced oxidation processes using free radicals such as .OH to degrade them (with Dr Kim Hageman and Dr Rhia Braund , OU School of Pharmacy).
Current Graduate Students
- NOTE : I am no longer taking accepting supervision of any new MSc or PhD Students.
Noelia Diaz-Perez (PhD)
Biochemistry of cadmium binding in the NZ dredge oyster
Paul McNabb (PhD)
Analytical determination of marine toxins
Alfred Tong (PhD)
Pharmaceuticals in the NZ Environment
Victor Cubillos (PhD)
Effects of ultraviolet radiation on intertidal organisms
Vida Rowhani (MSc)
Environmental audit of Cadburys Confectionery Limited (Dunedin)
Steve Rusak (PhD)
Temporal variations and ecological effects of hydrogen peroxide in seawater
Direct UV photolysis of aspirin, diclofenac and oseltamivir in solution
Shailini Ashoka (PhD)
Trace metal distribution in ling (Genypterus blacodes) for provenance identification.
Hugh Davies (MSc)
pH remediation within Mangatini Stream, West Coast, NZ
Cd in the marine environment
Michael Gonsior (PhD)
CDOM characterization and photochemical properties.
Jon Nielsen (MSc)
Trace metals on Otago Harbour sediments.
Reid Forrest (MSc)
Physiochemical aspects of the Motueka River plume.
Patila Amosa (MSc)
Chemistry of Samoa rain.
Tim Mulliner (MSc)
Geochemistry of Southland Coal Pit-Lakes
Uundine Reimer (MSc)
Photoprotective compounds in NZ Krill (Nyctiphanes australis)
Luc Richard (MSc)
Hydrogen peroxide dynamics in a freshwater system.
Amy Weaver (MSc)
Sub-lethal effects of cadmium on the New Zealand dredge oyster (Tiostrea chiliensis) reproduction and growth.
Matt Enright (MSc)
Tidal exchange of Papanui inlet.
Rebecca Stevenson (MSc)
A study of the chemical composition of the shell of Perna canliculus (Molusca: bivalvia: Mytilidae) and its possible uses as an environmental product. Abstract...
Greg Larkin (MSc)
Hypoxia :dynamics, causes and biological impacts in Kaikorai Estuary, Dunedin
Tom Heller (MSc)
Modeling of flow characteristics of the Lower Waitaki River
Ruth Arkless (MSc)
Cadmium and zinc in Greenshell® mussels, Perna canaliculus, from Pelorus Sound, Marlborough, New Zealand. Abstract...
Orabile Mogobe (MSc)
Physico-chemical Interactions of domoic acid with Trace Metals in Seawater
Joseph Hughes (MSc)
Environmental evaluation of Cypress mine proposed overburden, West Coast, New Zealand
Steve Rusak (MSc)
Hydrogen peroxide in natural aquatic systems Abstract...
Chris Kensington (MSc)
Nitrogen speciation in Taieri Plain ground waters Abstract...
Partitioning of chemical contaminants in urban stormwater Abstract... Photos...
Rudra Dhungana (MSc)
Nitrogen species in the Leith Catchment, Dunedin. Abstract...
Jose Hoedemaker (MSc)
Cadmium and zinc interaction with domoic acid
Jessica North (MSc)
Landfill leachate monitoring: application of stable isotopes, Otago
Sam Eccles (MSc)
Manipulation of cadmium levels in the Bluff Oyster (Tiostrea chilensis)
Daniel Moore (MSc)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity in the Upper Otago Harbour Basin
Jolene Key (MSc)
Nutrient levels in Big Glory Bay, Stewart Island
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International collaborations include
USA, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University, New York.
Chemical studies of DOC in Fiordland (2006 - )
USA, University of California, Irvine.
Urban Water Research Centre and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, chemical studies of hydrogen peroxide and dissolved organic matter (2006 - )
USA, Florida State University at Talahassee, Departments of Oceanography and Chemistry
Structural studies of dissolved organic matter (2005 - )
- Braund, B. and Peake, B. M. 2012. Human Pharmaceuticals of Potential Concern to the New Zealand Environment. Chapter 1 In: Barker, J.R. and Walters, R. (eds). New Zealand and Australia in Focus: Economics, the Environment and Issues in Health Care. pp. 1-33 Nova Science Publishers , Inc. New York. ISBN: 978-1-62081-208-2.
- Tong, A. Y. C., Braund, R., Warren, D.S. & Peake, B. M. TiO2-assisted photodegradation of pharmaceuticals – a review. Central European Journal of Chemistry (2012) 10: 989-1027. Doi:10.2478/s11532-012-0049-7
- Santoke, H., Song, W., Cooper, W.J. & Peake, B. M. Advanced oxidation treatment and photochemical fate of selected antidepressant pharmaceuticals in solutions of Suwannee River humic acid. Journal of Hazardous Materials (2012) 217-218:382-90.
- Burns, J., Cooper, W.J., Ferry, J. L., King, D.W. , DiMento, B. P., McNeill, K., Miller, C. J., Miller, W. L., Peake, B. M., Rusak, S. A., Rose, A. L. & Waite, T.D. Methods for reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection in aqueous environments Aquatic Sciences (2012) DOI: 10.1007/s00027-012-0251-x
- Rusak, S.A., Peake, B. M. Richard, L.E., Nodder, S. D. & Cooper, W.J. Distributions of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in seawater east of New Zealand Marine Chemistry (2011) 127:155 – 169. Doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2011.08.005
- Davies, H., Weber, P. Lindsay, P. Craw, D., Peake, B. & Pope, J. Geochemical changes during neutralisation of acid mine drainage in a dynamic mountain stream, New Zealand. Applied Geochemistry (2011) 26: 2121-2133. Doi.10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.07.10.
- Gillespie, P.A., Forrest, R.W., Peake, B. M., Basher, L.R., Clement, D.M., Dunmore, R.A. & Hicks, D.M. Spatial delineation of the depositional footprint of the Motueka River outwelling plume in Tasman Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research (2011) 45(3): 455-475. doi:10.1080/00288330.2011.579982.
- Tong, A. Y. C., Braund, R. & Peake, B. M. Disposal practices for unused medications in New Zealand community pharmacies Journal of Primary Health Care (2011) 3:197-203.
- Tong, A. Y. C., Braund, R., Tan. E.W., Tremblay, L.A., Stringer, T. , Trought, K. & Peake, B. M. UV-induced photodegradation of oseltamivir (Tamiflu™) in aqueous solution Environmental Chemistry (2011) 8: 182-189 doi:10.1071/EN10095
- Gonsior, M., Peake, B. M., Cooper, W.T, Podgorski, D., D’Andrilli J., Dittmar, T. & Cooper, W.J. Characterization of dissolved organic matter across the Subtropical Convergence off the South Island, New Zealand. Marine Chemistry (2011) 123 (1-4): 99-110.
- Tong, A. Y.C., Peake, B. M. & Braund, R. Disposal practices for unused medications around the world. Environment International (2011) 45(1): 292-298.
Gonsior, M., Peake, B. M., Cooper, W.T, Podgorski, D., D’Andrilli J., Dittmar, T. & Cooper, W.J. (2010) Characterization of dissolved organic matter across the Subtropical Convergence off the South Island, New Zealand. Marine Chemistry (2011) 123 (1-4): 99-110.
Tong, A. Y.C., Peake, B. M. & Braund, R. Disposal practices for unused medications around the world. Environment International (2011) 45(1): 292-298.
Ashoka, S., Peake, B. M., Bremner, G. & Hageman, K. J. Distribution of trace metals in a ling (Genypterus blacodes) fish fillet. Food Chemistry (2011) 125(2): -409. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.017
Rusak, S.A., Richard L. E., Peake, B. M., Cooper, W.J. & Bodeker, G.E. The influence of solar radiation on hydrogen peroxide concentrations in freshwater. Marine & Freshwater Research (2010) 61:1147-1153 doi.10.1071/MF10001
Mosley, L.M., Peake, B.M., & Hunter, K.A. Modelling of pH and inorganic carbon speciation in estuaries using the composition of the river and seawater end members. Environmental Modelling & Software (2010) 25:1658-1663 doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.06.014.
- Peake, B.M., Marsden, I. D., Ashoka, S. & Bremner, G. Interspecific and geographical variation in trace metal concentrations of New Zealand scallops. Journal of Shellfish Research (2010) 29:1-8 (in press)
- Sawant, P.M. , Tyndall, J.D.A. , Holland, P.T. , Peake, B.M., Mountfort, D.O. & Kerr, D.S a In vivo seizure induction and affinity studies of domoic acid and isodomoic acids D, E and F. Neuropharmacology (2010) 59: 129-138 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.03.019
- Ashoka, S., Peake, B. M., Bremner, G., Hageman, K.J. & Reid, M.R. Comparison of digestion methods for ICP-MS determination of trace elements in fish tissues. Analytica Chimica Acta (2009) 653: 191-199 doi:10.1016/j.aca.2009.09.025.
- Braund, R., Peake, B. M. and Shieffelbien. Disposal practices for unused medications in New Zealand. Environment International (2009) (in press) doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.04.003.
- Peake, B.M. & Braund , R. Environmental aspects of the disposal of pharmaceuticals in New Zealand. Chemistry in New Zealand (2009) 73: 58- 65.
- Gonsior, M.,Peake, B.M., Cooper, W.T., Podgorski, D., D'Andrilli, J., Cooper, W.J. Photochemically-induced molecular Changes in Dissolved Organic Matter using Ultrahigh Resolution Electrospray Ionization -Fourier Transform - Ion Cyclotron Resonance - Mass Spectrometry. Environmental Science & Technology (2009)( 43:698-703)
- Song, W.; Cooper, W.J.; Peake, B.M.; Mezyk, S.P.; Nickelsen, and O'Shea,K.E. Free-Radical-Induced Oxidative and Reductive Degradation of N, N'-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET): Kinetic Studies and Degradation Pathway. Water Research (2009) 43: 635-652
- Cooper, W. J., Song, W, Gonsior, M., Kalina, D., Peake, B. M & Mezyk, S. P. Recent advances in structure and reactivity of dissolved organic matter in natural waters. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply (2008) 8: 615 - 623 DOI:10.2166/WS.2008.141.
- Gonsior, M., Peake, B.M., Cooper, W.J., Jaff, R., Young, H., Kowalczuk. Specxtra characterisation of chromophoric dissolved organic mater (CDOM) in a fjord (Doubtful Sound, New Zealand). Aquatic Sciences (2008) 70:397-409
- Cooper, W. J., Mezyk, S. P., Peller, J. R., Cole, S. K., Song, W., Mincher, B. J. and Peake, B. M. Studies in Radiation Chemistry: Application to Ozonation and Other Advanced Oxidation Processes. Ozone: Science & Engineering (2008) 30(1) 58 - 64 DOI: 10.1080/01919510701761112 URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01919510701761112
- Craw, D., Mulliner, T., Haffert, L., Paulsen, H-K., Peake, B. & Pope, J. Stratigraphic controls on water quality at coal mines in southern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics (2008) 51: 59-72. DOI: 0028-8306/08/5101-0059.
- Song, W.; Cooper, W.J.; Mezyk, S.P.; Greaves, J.; & Peake, B.M. Free radical destruction of β-blockers in aqueous solution. Environmental Science & Technology (2008) 42:1256-1261 DOI: 10.1021/es702245n.
- Riemer, U., Lamare, M.D., Peake, B.M. Temporal concentrations of sunscreen compounds (Mycosporine-like Amino Acids) in phytoplankton and in the New Zealand krill, Nyctiphanes australis G.O. Sars. Journal of Plankton Research (2007) 29: 1077 - 1086.
- King, D.W., Cooper, W.J., Rusak, S.A., Peake, B.M., Kiddle, J.J, O'Sullivan, D.W., Melamed, M.L., Morgan C.R. and Theberge, S.M. . Flow Injection Analysis of H2O2 in Natural Waters Using Acridinium Ester-Chemiluminescence: Method Development and Optimization using a Kinetic Model. Analytical Chemistry (2007) (in press)
- Rusak, S.A.; Richard, L.E.; Peake, B.M.; Cooper, W. J.; Bodeker, G. E. Modeling long term trends in hydrogen peroxide concentration in relation to solar radiation in the Water of Leith, Dunedin, New Zealand. March 25-29.2007 Abstracts 233rd ACS National Meeting, Chicago, IL, USA.
- Hughes, J.; Craw, D., Peake, B., Lindsay, P. & Weber, P. Environmental characterisation of coal mine waste rock in the field: an example from New Zealand. Environmental Geology (2007) DOI: 10.1007/s00254-006-0594-5.
- Larkin, G., Closs, G. and Peake, B.M. Tolerance and behaviour of the myrid shrimp Tenagomysis novaezealandiae to low disoolved oxygen. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research (2007) (in press)
- Richard, L.U., Peake, B. M., Rusak. S. A., Cooper. W.J. and David J. Burritt, D.J. Production and Decomposition Dynamics of Hydrogen Peroxide in Freshwater. Environmental Chemistry (2007) 4, 49-54. doi : 10.1071/EN06068
- Peake, B. M. , Marsden, I.D. and Bryan, A. M. Spatial and temporal variations in trace metal concentrations in the cockle, Austrovenus stutchburyi, from Otago, New Zealand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (2006) DOI : 10.1007/s10661-006-6548-2
- Brown, J. N. and Peake. B.M. Sources of heavy metals and polycyclic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff. Science of the Total Environment 359 : 145 - 155 (2006).
- Hoedemaker, J.R., Peake, B.M., andKerr, D.S. Reduction in functional potency of the neurotoxin domoic acid in the presence of cadmium and zinc ions. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacy 20(1): 175-181 (2005).
- Kensington, C.G.; Richards, K., Murray, D.L & Peake, B.M. Distribution of nitrogen species in groundwater in the Taieri Plan aquifer, New Zealand. Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 43: 39 – 57 (2004) ISSN 0022-1708.
- Peake, B. M. & Mosley, L.M. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in relation to optical properties in a fiord (Doubtful Sound, New Zealand). New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38: 729 - 741 (2004) ISSN 0028-8330.
- North, J.F., Frew, R.D. & Peake, B. M. The use of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios to identify landfill leachate contamination : Green island : Landfill, Dunedin, New Zealand. Environment International 30 (5): 631 – 637 (2004) ISSN 0160-4120
- Cooke, R.R.M., Hurd, C.L., Lord, J.M., Peake, B.M., Raven, J.A., and Rees, T.A.V. Iron and zinc content of Hormosira banksii in New Zealand.New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38: 7385 (2004).
- Schallenberg, M., Burns, C.W. and Peake, B.M. A temperate, tide lake wetland complex 1. Water balance and ecological implications. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37 (2): 415–428 (2003).
- Brown, J.N. and Peake, B.M. Determination of colloidally-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in freshwater using a C18 solid phase extraction disks. Analytica Chimica Acta 486 (2): 159–169 (2003).
- Kieber, D.J., Peake, B.M. and Scully, N.M. Reactive oxygen species in aquatic ecosystems. In UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems, (ed. E.W. Helbling and H. Zagarese), pp. 251288. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK (2003).
- Litchfield, N., Craw, D., Koons, P.O., Edge, B., Perruadin, E. and Peake, B.M. Geology and geochemistry of groundwater within the Taieri Basin, east Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 45: 481497 (2002).
- Litchfield, N., Craw, D., Koons, B., Edge, B., Perraudin, E. and Peake, B.M. Geology and geochemistry of groundwater within the Taieri Basin, East Otago, New Zealand. NZ J. Geol. & Geophys. 45: 481497 (2002).
- Kieber, R.J., Peake, B.M., Willey, J.D. and Avery G.B. Dissolved organic matter and organic acids in coastal New Zealand rainwater. Atmospheric Environment 36 (21): 35573563 (2002).
- Peake, B.M., Collett, S.J., Labadie, P., Mosley, L.M., Kieber, R.J. and Willey, J.D. UV radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aquatic environments. In: UV Radiation and its Effects An Update 2002, RSNZ Miscellaneous Series 60, Royal Society of New Zealand, Wellington, p. 126 (2002).
- Kerr, D.S, Hoedemaker, J.R. and Peake, B.M. Interaction of cadmium and zinc with the marine algal toxin domoic acid. Proceedings MAF Biotoxin Workshop No. 17, May 3 2002 (2002).
- Kieber, R.J., Peake, B.M., Willey, J.T. and Jacobs, B. Iron speciation and hydrogen peroxide concentration in New Zealand rainwater. Atmospheric Environment 35: 60416048 (2001).
- Mosley, L.M. and Peake, B.M. Partitioning of metals (Fe, Pb, Cu , Zn) in urban runoff from the Kaikorai Valley, Dunedin, New Zealand. NZ J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 35: 615624 (2001).
- Peake, B.M., Walls, D.J. and Gibbs, M.T. Spatial variations in the levels of nutrients, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen in summer and winter in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. NZ J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 35: 681694 (2001).
- Brown, J.N. and Peake, B.M. Chemical contamination of New Zealand urban stormwater: levels, partitioning, and implications for treatment. Canadian Water Resources Association British Columbia Branch 2001 Conference May 811 2001 Whistler, B.C. ISBN 1-896513-20-4 p.25 (2001).
For video on "Statistics of Trace Metal Analysis of Oysters" : see http://unitube.otago.ac.nz/view?m=LTYf1htHLVu
Healthy Harbour Watchers
See : http://neon.otago.ac.nz/outreach/harbourwatch/index.html
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